underwater welding

 underwater welded Essay



The simple fact that electric powered arc can operate was known for on the 100 years. The first ever underwater welding was carried out by British Admiralty – Dockyard pertaining to sealing leaking ship rivets below the drinking water line. Underwater welding is an important tool intended for underwater manufacture works. In 1946, particular waterproof electrodes were designed in Holland by ‘Van der Willingen'. In recent years the quantity of offshore structures including essential oil drilling rigs, pipelines, websites are staying installed considerably. Some of these constructions will experience failures of its elements during normal usage and during unpredicted situations like hard storms, collisions. Any repair approach will require the use of underwater welded. CLASSIFICATION

Underwater welding could be classified because

1) Moist Welding

2) Dry Welding

In rainy welding the welding is conducted underwater, immediately exposed to the wet environment. In dry welding, a dry holding chamber is created nearby the area to become welded and the welder will the job simply by staying within the chamber.


Moist Welding indicates that welded is performed underwater,

directly encountered with the moist environment. An exclusive electrode is employed and welded is accomplished manually being an does in open atmosphere welding. The increased liberty of movement makes wet

welded the most effective, successful and cost effective method. Welding power supply is located on the surface with link with the diver/welder via wires and hoses.

In rainy welding MMA (manual metal arc welding) is used.

Power Supply used

: DC


: -ve polarity

When ever DC is utilized with +ve polarity, electrolysis will take place and cause rapid deterioration of any material components inside the electrode holder. For moist welding AC is certainly not used on bank account of electric safety and difficulty in keeping an arc underwater.

Electric power


Electrode Holder



Cutting knife Switch

The ability source can be a direct current equipment rated for 300 or 400 amperes. Motor electrical generator welding machines are most often utilized for underwater welding in the damp. The welded machine framework must be grounded to the ship. The welding circuit need to include a great type of swap, usually a knife switch operated on the surface and commanded by welder-diver. The knife switch inside the electrode signal must be in a position of smashing the full welding current and is used for basic safety reasons. The welding power should be connected to the electrode holder only during welding.

Direct current with electrode negative (straight polarity) can be used. Special welding electrode owners with extra insulation resistant to the water are being used. The underwater welding electrode holder utilizes a twist type go get the gripping the electrode. It accommodates two sizes of electrodes. The electrode types used adapt AWS E6013 classification. The electrodes must be waterproofed. Most connections must be thoroughly insulated so that the drinking water cannot are exposed to the steel parts. In case the insulation truly does leak, seawater will come in contact with the material conductor and part of the current will drip away and can not be accessible at the arc. In addition , there will be rapid damage of the water piping cable on the point from the leak.

Hyperbaric Welding (dry welding)

Hyperbaric welding can be carried out in chamber covered around the framework o always be welded. The chamber is stuffed with a gas (commonly helium containing zero. 5 pub of oxygen) at the current pressure. The habitat can be sealed upon the pipeline and filled up with a for you to mixture of helium and fresh air, at or perhaps slightly above the ambient pressure at which the welding is to take place. This technique produces premium quality weld joint parts that satisfy Xray and code requirements. The gas tungsten arc welding process is employed with this process. The region under the flooring of the An environment is accessible to water. Thus the welded is done inside the dry nevertheless at the hydrostatic pressure with the sea water surrounding the Habitat....

References: 1) G. J Keats, Manual on Wet Welded.

2) Annon, Recent improvements in dry underwater pipe welding, Welded Engineer, 1974.

3) Lythall, Gibson, Dry out Hyperbaric underwater welding, Welded Institute.

4) W. Lucas, International seminar on software in welded.

5) Stepath M. G, Underwater welding and cutting yields slowly to research, Welded Engineer, Apr


6) Silva, Hazlett, Underwater welded with flat iron – powdered electrodes, Welded Journal, the year of 1971.


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